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Projects by country

For EUCYS 2012 have been approved 83 projects from 37 countries: 

Austria (2 projects)

Belarus (3 projects)

Bulgaria (3 projects)

Canada (1 project)

Czech Republic (3 projects)

Denmark (1 project)

Estonia (3 projects)

European schools (1 project)

Finland (1 project)

France (2 projects)

Georgia (2 projects)

Germany (3 projects)

Greece (1 project)

Hungary (3 projects)

China (3 projects)

Ireland (1 project)

Israel (3 projects)

Italy (3 projects)

Latvia (3 projects)

Lithuania (3 projects)

Luxembourg (2 projects)

Malta (1 project)

New Zealand (1 project)

Norway (1 project)

Poland (3 projects)

Portugal (2 projects)

Russia (3 projects)

Slovakia (3 projects)

Slovenia (2 projects)

South Korea (2 projects)

Spain (2 projects)

Sweden (2 projects)

Switzerland (3 projects)

Turkey (3 projects)

Ukraine (2 projects)

United Kingdom (3 projects)

USA (3 projects)

 

 

 

Austria (2 projects)

Lucas Noel Sulzberger, Robert Gautsch           

ICA-Method (Biology)

ICA Method - Innovative-Clostridia-Analysis-Method. The bacteria detectives. Before meat, cheese, fish and other food lands on the shelf in a supermarket, they pass through a complicated series of strict checks for bacteria. With some strains of bacteria the tests take so long that the product has already been shipped before the results have been obtained. Lucas Sulzberger and Robert Gautsch, students at the technical college in Salzburg, have developed a procedure that detects the Clostridium sporogenes germ much sooner. The germs form spores that can survive temperature peaks up to 140 °C, making Clostridium immune to many disinfection processes. And because many food producers deliberately do not use antibiotics, the heat treatment method is out of the question anyway. That is why the two students set themselves the target of trying to grow the harmful bacteria as quickly as possible on a suitable substrate so that it can be made visible using a colour indicator. During the first phase of the project the students spent much of their time in the laboratory extensively researching micro-organisms and growth substrates. During the second phase the two students researched the use of substrates with a growth accelerator to reduce incubation times. At the end of this test phase they evaluated the results: based on the colour and rate of growth the young researchers classified the substrates according to the type of colony formation, quantity and colour from "no result" to "very good".

 

Philip Huprich  

Manuel Scheipner, Daniel Zindl 

Cam Guard (Engineering)     

Clean, clear images. The special challenge of this project consists of designing a completely new concept of a blow off device for the protection of cameras working with compressed air. We had to analyse the existing blow off system, study the aerodynamic fundamentals, design a prototype and inspect its flow characteristics with the support of a simulation programme. The next step was to build a functional model and test it under real conditions in its future operation area. In the course of time, we found that one system would be able to meet our high expectations. We improved this concept and were even able to partially manufacture it in the school’s workshop. Furthermore we had to design a system which connects our device to the existing camera case. We had to beware of the extreme precise camera optics and the high temperatures and therefore involved thermal expansions. Because of the fact that our prototype exceeded all our expectations in several tests, we wanted to prove its full functionality at the grounds of the voestalpine. Therefore we tested our system two months under real environmental influences. We used the knowledge we got out of the feedback to improve our construction to design a profitable device. The organisational effort should not be left out of sight because as students we had to get knowhow of lots of for us new matter.

 

 

 

Belarus (3 projects)

Pavel Litvinka

Development of hardware and software complex for the formation of three-dimensional image (Computing)             

The hardware and software complex "IMPOSSIBLE Box" is based on the original, developed by the author, technique that allows you to get a three-dimensional image from a flat drawing by adding special markers. It does not require the use of additional species. The technique combines the processes of drawing and modelling, which allows to fully automating the process of constructing the facility. Bright presentation of information, opportunities embodiment of spatial forms, make the developed complex demand for all types of design, advertising, training, film making industry, simulation.

 

Uladzimir Kuznichenkau, Ilya Tsedryk

Color coordinates determination with the help of chromacity identification board (Engineering)

In this work we examine the questions which deal with the elaboration of a compact colour board which helps to determine the colour coordinates of colored superficies. The main concept of its elaboration is simplicity of the production process and economic profitability. The creation of this instrument is based on the idea to apply three light-emitting diodes of different colours and to use the simplified scheme of the instrument. In the result of our work we chose the most rational construction of the instrument, we created its working model and found out the spheres where the instrument can be used in the most profitable way.

 

Raman Birulia

The probability of generating the symmetric group with a commutator condition (Mathematics)

This paper investigates a refinement of Netto's conjecture. Let B(n) be the set of pairs of permutations from the symmetric group of degree n with a 3-cycle commutator, and let A(n) be the set of those pairs which generate the symmetric or the alternating group of degree n. We find effective formulas for calculating the cardinalities of both sets. In particular, we show that the probability that a pair of random permutations with a 3-cycle commutator generates the symmetric or the alternating group of degree n tends to zero as n tends to infinity, which makes a surprising contrast with Dixon's classical result. In addition to solving the original problem, we obtain several applications connected with Diophantine equations, lattices in RxR and characters of irreducible representations of the symmetric group. Key elements of our proofs are Jordan's theorem from the 19th century, a formula by Ramanujan from the 20th century and a technique of square-tiled surfaces developed by French mathematicians Lelièvre and Royer in the beginning of the 21st century.

 

 

Bulgaria (3 projects)

Lyubomir Lyubchov Yanchev, Hristo Tsvetanov Stoyanov

ModernSteward (Engineering)

ModernSteward is an open-source home and computer automation system, which enables the user to command verbally his computer and other electrical devices. ModernSteward aims to make the computer work more natural and to facilitate the work in households, factories, national services, etc. The project takes advantage of modern methods for object-oriented programming, working with external assemblies under .NET and controlling external devices as well as computer applications. The flexibility of the code permits developers to modify it and use it in their own work. Development by the authors is constantly underway, extending and improving the project's functionality. The speech recognition engine of the application provides the verbal control over the computer and external devices. The project’s development concentrates on making a flexible plugin-based environment, which enables the users to easily extend the functionality of the product.  

 

Dimitar Marinov Vuldzhev, Ivan Stefanov Stefanov             

Relate2Spot (Computing)

Nowadays hundreds of sources generate content; the main problem is how to quickly analyse large chunks of that data. Relate2Spot is a free knowledge management system which automatically discovers indirect relationships among entities. It can be used by organizations to rapidly acquire general idea (counterintelligence e.g.) or construct expression trees (symptoms of a disease) as well as by individuals to discover tendencies in texts (news). Relate2Spot uses Latent Semantic Analysis as a foundation, thereafter depending on the results wanted, various complex operations are applied. A tool for automatic entities extraction in Bulgarian language was developed. The implementation incorporates advanced techniques like parallel-programming, sparse-structures and process-optimizations. Maximum performance as well as minimum memory usage was achieved. In the reviewing process, the operator can take advantage of the built-in helpers. Finally, based on the conclusions made, an expression tree for third-party purposes can be built.                                                                    

 

Prolet Borislavova Lazarova

Elliptic arbelos (Mathematics)

This project aims to expand the concept of the arbelos – a figure consisting of two congruent and outerly tangent circles, which are both internally tangent to a third circle. A similar figure in which the outer circle is replaced by an ellipse could be seen in many Sangaku tablets. It had not been studied separately despite its long existence and this gave the author an urge to examine its properties. The ellipse in the elliptic arbelos has its foci coinciding with the centres of the generating circles. Basic properties of the figure are established and formed as theorems. Some interesting observations are made; some of them were confirmed and other – rejected. The non-trivial case of the generalized elliptic arbelos is examined. The concept of Archimedes’ circles in the generalized elliptic arbelos is introduced and an algorithm for their construction is designed. The project's main contribution is finding new results and relations between existing notions in the Euclidean geometry. Also several loci and other facts of potential interest to Astronomy are considered. Specific parts are intriguing to experts in history of mathematics.

 

 

 Canada (1 project)

 Adam Joel Noble

Euglena: the solution to nanosilver pollution (Environment)

Nanosilver, a compound that inhibits the growth of bacteria and fungi, is being used in an ever-increasing number of commercial, industrial and agricultural processes and products. Consequently, humans may be exposed to high levels of nanosilver in their daily lives. This study demonstrated that Euglena cells actively absorb and concentrate nanosilver, causing structural and functional damage, eventually resulting in cell death. In addition, the LC50 for lake trout embryos cultured in nanosilver solutions was determined to be 23.5µg/L. Consequently, nanosilver poses a potential challenge to the sustainability of ecosystems and perhaps human health. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a Euglena Biofilter that can function as a remediation device for the removal of environmental nanosilver in wastewater effluent. Numerous factors were tested to maximize growth of Euglena cells in a culture medium and absorption of nanosilver by Euglena from nanosilver standard solutions. A prototype Nanosilver Filtration System was built whereby 3.4X108 cells /hour could be harvested for use in a Nanosilver Absorption Flow-Through System. 100% of the nanosilver was absorbed from nanosilver test solutions and 99-100% of the nanosilver was absorbed in one hour from wastewater sampled from the Peterborough Wastewater Treatment Plant that contained 36.7µg/L to 64.7µg/L nanosilver. 99.9% of the Euglena cells containing nanosilver were recovered. In conclusion, growth of Euglena cells in culture can be maximized and maintained to support a biofilter system that effectively and efficiently operates to filter wastewater containing nanosilver.

 

 

Czech Republic (3 projects)

Martin Bucháček  

Rigid body statics in geometry (Mathematics)

The project shows the relation between statics and geometry. If we consider suitable mass points, we can find interesting relations between abstract geometric objects like lines and points or to solve geometric problems. Geometry can also help us to describe static behaviour of real rigid bodies. At first, I considered planar objects placed on a curved pad and showed that my theory can be illustrated by the behaviour of rocking stones. Later, I found a body with uniform density with only one stable point. It does not depend how we initially place it and it always returns to a unique position.

 

Adam Heinrich

Visually programmable mobile controller for personal automation (Engineering)

This project describes the hardware and software of mobile controller for personal automation. The controller consists of two parts: a mobile phone and interface I/O board suitable for controlling external devices. The mobile phone has got touchscreen LCD display with graphical user interface and is built from commonly available electronic parts. User is able to customize behaviour of the controller using clear graphical development interface on a personal computer. This makes it easy to use the controller as an alarm for thief protection or as a remote controller which turns lights in the house on and off after receiving phone call or text message.

  

Eliška Zlámalová

Monitoring of the molecular basis of drug abuse (Chemistry)

Brain’s function is to organize all processes, i.e. to control not only the human body but also the personality, emotions and thoughts. This underlines why it is extremely important to better understand its structure and mechanisms. The presented work is devoted to the development of a method that enables monitoring the concentrations of signal substances which are contained in the brain and to the use of this method in an experimental study of methamphetamine prenatal exposition. The developed method includes in vivo sample collection by microdialysis, a concentration method, a stable-isotope-dilution assay and detection step consisting of liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). By applying this method in animal study, it was proven that abusing methamphetamine during pregnancy induces changes in concentration levels of neurotransmitter dopamine as well as higher predisposition to the drug addiction in offspring. Moreover, this method proved to have many advantages such as its wide applicability that allows us to use it in many areas of neurosciences.

 

 

Denmark (1 project)

Asbjørn Christian Nordentoft

Applications of Dirichlet series (Mathematics)

In my project I compare the analytic and elementary approach to number theoretical problems. It is fascinating that a number theoretical theorem can be proven using both elementary and analytic methods, because number theory and analysis on the surface are two very different branches of mathematics. In the paper I give both elementary and analytic proofs to three number theoretical theorems and compare the different proofs from both a mathematical and intuitive point of view. I also give my own elegant proof of a theorem concerning residues and prime numbers which usually is proved using classical number theory.

 

 

Estonia (3 projects)

Karl-Sander Erss     

The chemoenzymatic synthesis of lithocholic acid conjugates and their influence on the activity of Candida rugosa lipase (Chemistry)

The paper describes the novel chemical and enzymatic syntheses for several lithocholic acid conjugates and attempts of dimerisation of described compounds. Lithocholic acid is a natural bile acid synthesised in human body from cholesterol. Enzyme, the biocatalyst used in test is Candida antarctica lipase B, a lipase from the Candida antarctica yeast. The compounds were synthesised to inhibit other microbial lipases. The model enzyme to test the inhibitory effect was the lipase from Candida rugosa. The inhibition of lipases is associated with the treatment of different diseases such as peptic ulcers, yeast infections and acne.

                                                                        

Anna Maria Punab

The relationships between academic achievements and happiness among students in secondary education (Social Sciences)

The aim of the study was to explore the relationships between subjective well-being (happiness), autonomy, social support and school grades among late adolescents. For this purpose a survey was carried out among 211 11th year students. It revealed that neither the average grade, which was based on students’ self-reported grades in Mathematics, native language, History and the first foreign language, nor the average grade in the three most important subjects for the student were in correlation by either happiness or satisfaction with life. However students who had more supporting figures on their lives were happier and received better grades. Interestingly, the support from peers was more strongly associated with the average grade whereas support from parents correlated with the average grade in three most important subjects for the student. Autonomy on the other hand was only related to the grade in the first foreign language.

 

Jaan Toots

Study on nuclear transport mechanisms of Neurl1 protein (Biology) 

Neuralized is a gene necessary for the correct development of the nervous system in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. However, in mammals the role of Neuralized homologues has remained elusive, although they have been implicated in several development processes and memory storage. One of the mammalian homologues, Neurl1, has been shown to shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Putative nuclear transport enabling sequences in Neurl1 have been identified, but were found not to be required for the nuclear import of the Neurl1 protein as a whole. The current study was undertaken to find out whether these sequences are required for nuclear import of a separate structural part of Neurl1 protein. Our results demonstrate that these sequences are not necessary for the nuclear import of the separate part of the Neurl1 protein, indicating that the nuclear transport mechanisms of Neurl1 are more complicated than previously thought.

 

 

European schools (1 project)

Alvaro Sanchez Vela, Enrique Alejandro Galceran Garcia, Leyre Ortiz Garcia                      

M.O.B. light: a new development (Engineering)

The M.O.B. light is a buoy designed to be thrown into the sea just after a person has fallen into it. It basically consists of a light attached to a battery that would help people on the boat to find the person in danger at night or simply on a foggy day. The boat is not able to turn 180 degrees in a short period of time, so the person over board might get lost. The idea of this buoy is to be able to keep focused on the person who is in the sea while the boat turns around. The students have made a non-mechanical based activation system, with no moving parts.

  

 

Finland (1 project)

Kiira Birgitta Saarela               

Owl´s prey detection in the vicinity of a highway (Environment)

Owls use often only their hearing to detect prey, so preying is more difficult in noisy environments. Therefore owls cannot live in the vicinity of a highway, when highway noise masks prey's rustling sounds. To solve how wide the effect is, I created a computational model to represent this phenomenon. As background information I used studies about highway noise, attenuation of sound, and about owls' hearing and preying. The most critical time for owls' survival is winter, when the atmospheric attenuation of highway noise is low and darkness prevents owls from detecting prey by seeing. According to my results, highway disturbs owls' preying within a range of about 1.4 km in cold climates like in Finland. In warmer climates the distance is shorter. When building a highway for example near to a bird sanctuary, this safety distance should be taken into account. In order to protect these areas, noise barriers could be built.

 

 

France (2 projects)

Damien Eugène Emile Toussaint, Yohann Thibault Roiron, Charlie Alain Georges Leprince

Diving into the invisible or how to characterize mater (Physics)

Studying the materials structure is essential to know its properties. To do that, interaction light/matter is mainly used. It is necessary to choose the right radiation and the corresponding detector according to the structural characteristic length. For reasons of convenience and safety, these three students used two home-made crystal models of centimetre typical scale, where atoms are represented by small balls. In the first experiment, a white light beam goes through a dense monolayer of glass balls. The surface is scanned at constant height with a photodetector leading to a “surface” image due to balls focus. In a second experiment, they are going in the third dimension and the invisible. Microwaves are scattered by a “megacrystal” in well-defined directions allowing the structure characterization. In these experiences, they can detect, as done in real crystals with X-rays, materials defects, which has many applications in basic research and in industry: it is a key of the analysis of the matter.

 

Céline Lay, Fanny Mathilde Risbourg, Ophelia Maryse Elisa Bolmin

Hexapedal Robot (Engineering)

When humanitarian crises occur (earthquakes, tsunamis or nuclear accidents), a number of robots are sent to devastated places inaccessible to humans in order to find victims or to evaluation damages in high risk areas. Most of these robots are cumbersome and expensive. To overcome these drawbacks, we have developed an innovative humanitarian robotic system that is light-weight, quick, flexible and inexpensive. It can clear small obstacles, withstand falls, move with ease across all types of surfaces. Our Hexapedal Robot is designed to imitate the cockroach (a six-legged insect) and utilize minimal power to move about. It is inspired by the philosophy of biomimetics, a developmental science based on a very simple concept: observe and imitate biological systems as models for the design and engineering of innovation, energy efficient and sustainable solutions.

 

 

Georgia (2 projects)

Tsotne Mamalashvili, Beka Chkhartishvili

New method of construction of Congruum solutions (Mathematics)

Our project is about constructing new solutions for one of the most famous problem called Congruum problem. If we want to know more about this one, we have to look in medieval ages. This problem was made by Brother Mathematicians, Depalerma of Frederic II Holy Emperor of Rome. They made this for most famous mathematicians of his time Leonardo Pisano (also called Fibonacci). Frederic Second wanted to test him so he ordered brother to make this problem. We don’t know how Fibonacci solved this problem but he did it perfectly. So solutions are 1681/144 and 1681/144+5=2401/144 and 1681/144-5=961/144. So the problem is to find a square number and if we add or subtract it same, we have to get perfect squares too. We found the way how to construct new solutions and found new ones too. New solution for Fibonacci’s problem is square of 3344161/1494696. By calculations we managed to get new recurrence formulae.

 

Alexander Barnaveli

Modernization of the Electro-Magnetic Launcher (Physics)

Electro-Magnetic Launchers (EML) converts the electrical energy stored in a stationary power supply into kinetic energy of a moving projectile. The main superiority of such launchers on the conventional ones is that much higher velocities can be achieved. So the development of EML construction is very actual and a lot of work in this field is being performed in different countries. The purpose of our investigation was to find some directions in which the optimization of coilgun-type EML construction can be achieved. The simplest model of coilgun-type EML consists of a tube, solenoid, ferromagnetic projectile and the energy source – capacitors. We proposed our construction of iron shell for the solenoid and also advanced electrical scheme which gives efficient solution of the so-called "solenoid middle-point problem" of the coilgun-type EML. We constructed different models of coilgun and performed experiments which showed that our modernizations together give about 40% advantage in projectile velocity. With C=900μF, U=300V, 85mm*Ø42mm solenoid and 8mm*15mm projectile we got ~42m/sec velocity. For the further investigations we propose also more efficient version of the coilgun switching scheme.

 

 

Germany (3 projects)

Alexander Emhart

Electrolytic raffination of hydrogen (Chemistry)

Fermentation of biomass produces hydrogen, which is regarded as the energy source of the future. However, it also produces environmentally harmful carbon dioxide. Alexander Emhart has developed an electrolytic cell that efficiently separates the two gases. In the first step, hydrogen is oxidised at the anode. The resulting positively charged ions migrate through a proton exchange membrane, which is also used in fuel cells. The molecules of undesirable carbon dioxide are too big to pass through the membrane. The hydrogen ions recombine with the electrons at the cathode of the electrolytic cell to produce pure hydrogen. The apparatus designed by Alexander Emhart operates with a high efficiency of more than 90 per cent. Moreover, it requires very little energy to separate the gases.

 

Jan Michael Rapp, Timo Schmetzer

Information technology for a feedback control (Computing)

Car engines, printers and hard drives: all three involve electronic control systems that, for example, control injection nozzles, paper feeders and reading heads. Jan Rapp and Timo Schmetzer have built a similar electronic control system consisting of a plate that is able to be tilted by motors and computer-controlled so that a ball can be balanced on it. The secret is a 3D camera that monitors how the ball rolls. The two have written a software program to analyse the camera images and control the motors to keep the ball from rolling off the plate. The software system has been designed to be flexible, so that it can be used not only for balancing acts but for other control tasks as well.

 

Timm Piper

Darkfield contrast microscope (Physics)

For centuries the light microscope has been the workhorse of science: it makes visible the most intricate details of a wide variety of materials. What’s more, new techniques continue to be developed that further enhance the performance of light microscopes. Timm Piper has devised two new methods that supplement each other. Through highly effective illumination and intelligent methods for superimposing images, the young researcher has succeeded in producing extremely high-contrast microscope images that reveal hidden details. Superior quality images can be made even of “problematic objects”, such as vitamin C preparations, the wings of insects or particular species of algae. Timm Piper has already published journal articles on the two techniques and applied for patents.

 

 

Greece (1 project)

Charalampos Ioannou

Device which enhances and supports the movement of the human palm (Engineering)

My goal was to construct a device that will support and assist the movement of the human hand. In order to achieve this, we need to detect the force that one applies to an object, by the use of pressure sensors. After this, a processing system will process the received data from the sensors and according to the values received; it will move respectively servo motors, which are installed in an exoskeletal metal glove. The strength of the operator is enhanced in this way.

 

 

Hungary (3 projects)

Balázs Ludmány

Depth psychology of error messages (Computing)

Error messages are not enough effective. The user gets used to these notifications, so he ignores them. My aim was to develop a message handler system, which reacts to the user's habits and draws his attention to the error message again. I carried out a research on what those properties of a message are that attract attention most when changed. Results are the following: If the user is sure in his decision he ignores the message anyway; The most effective is when we add extra text to the message; Animated images and the change of background colour are also effective; Removing elements from the interface is not effective. My message handler system detects, if the user ignores the message, and modifies one of its properties next time to attract his attention. The default order of the modifications is based on the results of my research. After long-term use the system changes the order according to the user's habits.

 

Ádám Erik Hollós

Optical seismograph (Physics)

Registering seismic motions is important in predicting larger earthquakes threatening our buildings, industries and lives. Even the slowest motions are important, but the classical inductive type detecting is less sensitive at lower frequencies. My optical seismograph keeps the electronic sensitivity in the case of high and low frequencies as well. I use a 4-segment displacement detector, illuminated by a LED, fixed to the pendulum’s mass. Analogue electronics is used to calculate the X-Y directional signal. The light of the LED is chopped with 1 kHz frequency, therefore the signal is amplitude modulated, and can be easily audible even below 10 Hz of quakes, and can be recorded with any computer. However, in the current form the pendulum is not designed to reach frequencies below 1 Hz.

 

Gergely Papp

Resonantial-cone loudspeaker with neodym magnet (Engineering)

I developed a loudspeaker operating by non-classical principals. A unique magnet-circle with two stand-alone coils was constructed and its airgap-induction is much larger than in a traditional loudspeaker. Its remaining induction is minimal, that is why I could achieve a higher level sensitivity, a better sound-pressing and sound-fidelity. Every component (swing, membrane, basket, coil etc.) is my own construction and specially made for my loudspeaker. Therefore, the frequency transmission is much wider than in classical loudspeakers. It means a very good sound-transmission (from 65 Hz to 13 kHz) with higher than 115 dB sound-pressure. The transmission is based on the two stand-alone swing-coils and their special and unique construction. I constructed a >>resonantial-coneconical-coil<< on the outer jar, so it means light-weight and a more successful loading. The excellent transmission is provided by these two coils. When the coil is overloaded, it can automatically cool down because of the special forming, preventing the burning down of the coil. The measuring results and subjective tests prove the unique and special construction principals.

 

 

China (3 projects)

Bocheng Song

Double braking prevent fall back and rollover multifunction walking frame (Engineering)

The invention relates to a walking frame that is designed and manufactured for patients who suffer from inabilities to walk (semisideration, paraplegia, myasthenia and tremor of limbs and athletic injuries). The innovation points of this project include: Pull-rod type “left-push-right-pull” double braking system, which enables braking on the different conditions to be realized conveniently; backward prevention system, which prevents the walking frame from falling back uphill without braking; a rollover prevention system is designed so that a supporting area is expanded and thus rollover can be prevented. A multi-weight-supporting system including a portal frame hanging weight-supporting system, a forearm supporting table, armrests and a seat board and the like is designed; and multi-function accessories like a phone holder, defecate and urinate equipment, a piece of keep-out cloth, a plate for putting things and the like is also designed so that the user's various needs can be met.

 

Zeen Huo

Heron triangles and Perfect Cuboids (Mathematics)

My research subject is Heron triangles. In my research, I mainly focus on a thorough and deep study on Heron triangle of which angle bisector is a rational. Moreover, I give the construction of Heron triangles with rational angular bisectors and obtain three different expressions of Heron triangles with rational angular bisectors. Besides, I associate my research with the well-known unresolved Perfect Cuboid Problem (PCP) and obtain several Diophantine systems. I sincerely hope my research can be of some help to solve this difficult problem.

 

Weicheng Lin

Acidic and alkaline hybrid fuel cells for electricity generation (Chemistry)

An electricity generation system with acidic and alkaline hybrid fuel cells has been invented. This system can meet the requirements of self-humidification by using the water generated from the alkaline side to the acidic side according to the working principle of the two cells in series. There is only one fuel compartment used for a hybrid structure to significantly reduce the volume of the system. Thereby, the cost could be significantly cut down. On the other hand, such fuel cell can generate higher power by connecting many single cells in series. The hybrid system has higher energy density and lower cost due to the reduction of the volume and auxiliary system with improved electrochemical performance and efficiency. This electricity generation can be used in sustainable, vehicle and portable devices as an alternative to fossil fuels for internal combustion engine and meet the zero emission goals.

 

 

Ireland (1 project)

Mark James Kelly, Eric Doyle

Simulation accuracy in the gravitational many-body problem (Physics)

The publication, in 2008, of Dr Diarmuid Ó’Mathúna’s book Integrable Systems in Celestial Mechanics was a very significant event in the long history of Celestial Mechanics. In this book Ó’Mathúna provides formulas for the bound orbits of a light particle moving in the gravitational field of two fixed massive particles, a problem that had remained unsolved for two hundred and fifty years since it was first proposed by Euler about 1760. Ó’Mathúna’s work has an important practical application. We show that the Ó’Mathúna orbits provide very severe tests of the accuracy of the simulation algorithms commonly used in the gravitational many-body problem. We also describe a new class of efficient simulation algorithms specifically tailored for use in gravitational many-body simulations.

 

  

Israel (3 projects) 

Amit Shafran

Magic amulet Ts K1.165 from the Cairo Genizah – introduction, scientific edition and explanation (Social Sciences)

The Cairo Genizah is a tremendous archive of some 210,000 Jewish manuscripts, fragments and books, which were found in the archive of "Ben Ezra" synagogue in Cairo. Among those texts the different magical documents stand out; especially amulets that were written by members of the Jewish community, or for them. This project includes a transcription of amulet TS K1.165, analysis, and identification of the cultural and historical context of the amulet. The importance of the study lies in the fact that this is the first and only study on this amulet so far. The study has shown that this amulet was written at the end of 11th century, and was ordered by a person named El'azar HaKohen, who wanted to find favour with the Qadi (Muslim judge or governor) Abu Al'fatukh and also rule him. This amulet reflects the main elements in Jewish magic throughout the ages, and includes foreign influences from ancient Greek and Egyptian magic. Through this, the amulet confirms existence of connection between the Jewish magicians and their non-Jewish colleagues. Also, it demonstrates the Jewish folklore's development, from antiquity to the middle ages.

 

Roy Tal Yosef

Remote sensing of medical parameters by laser illumination (Engineering)

Illuminating a laser beam on any rough surface will generate a pattern of bright and dark dots. This pattern is known as secondary speckle pattern, and it is caused by the self-interference of the laser wave front. The speckle pattern is random, and it's affected by the movement of the reflecting surface. At the laboratory of Prof. Zeev Zalevsky (1), in which I work, we were able to track the change in the speckle pattern and translate it to a controlled movement of the surface. By tracking and measuring the change of the speckle pattern that is generated by illuminating the human skin, we were able to translate it to various medical parameters, such as heart beat, blood pressure, glucose monitoring and even detecting the presence of alcohol. The preliminary obtained results indicate high potential for future usage of this technique instead of alternative existing invasive measurements or measurements requiring physical contact. Further development will lead to a realization of various biomedical remote monitoring products performing the desired non-invasive and simultaneous sensing of several vital biomedical parameters. (1) Faculty of Engineering, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel.

 

Alfarook Abu Alhassan

Water crystallization kinetics in porous media (Physics)

Processes of heat transfer and material which occurs in porous media in which the aggregate state changes are known to be very complicated. However they are very important for many areas of science. These processes cover a wide range of applications, such as: food preservation using freezing technology, decomposition and - solidification of reacting chemical systems, etc. For this purpose we have developed a numerical model, describing highly accurate temperature distribution and phase change front propagation in such environment. Unlike other models, this model takes into account that the propagation speed has a limited velocity and non-linear effects, such as crystallization time. Therefore it yields results that can't be obtained from previous models.

 

 

Italy (3 projects)

Giulio Favaro

Break system with non-newtonian fluid (Engineering)

The project shows a new kind of emergency break system that use, instead the attrite between the brake pads and the wheel, the force of some blades immersed in a non-newtonian fluid. A non-newtonian fluid changes its viscosity if stressed by a force and in particular the system uses a dilatant fluid that increases viscosity. The system is composed by two cilinder, one inside the other, that has blades towards the opposite cilinder. The blades of one cilinder mke the force to halt the rotation and the blades of the second cilinder prevent the rotation of the entire fluid that would make no attrite. When is time to halt the engine tree where the system is used the tree rotation is transmitted to the brake system by a mechanism (like a clutch) and the blades halt the rotation. The system will be used like emergency system because also a small one could generate high level of force.

                                    

Luca Passerini, Michele Simoncelli

CNC milling machine (Engineering)

The aim of the project is making 3D complex sculptures starting from a 3D drawing. Michele and Luca realized the software to draw 3D objects, and the electronic hardware to control a milling machine, a machine tool used to mill solid materials. A milling machine basically consists of a spindle, a motor that through a transmission shaft rotates a milling tool, which can move on three axes (forward-backward, right-left, up-down). The milling tool is a special tool which removes material by its movement (rotation). Axes movements are controlled by stepper motors (electric motors that can divide a full rotation into a large number of small movements called “steps”). Each motor is controlled by an appropriate control circuit, which is connected with a central control unit that communicates with the PC via a serial port and organizes motor movements. The software consists of three complementary parts: - 3D designer, a drawing software which allows to model a 3D object and save it in a proper file format (8-bit greyscale bitmap image); - CNC driver 1.0, a machine managing software which interprets the 3Designer output file and sends instructions to the hardware circuit. Furthermore, it allows to set all the machinery-working options (like axis offsets, precision, working sizes, working mode, stepper motors speed, …) and monitors the state of the processing in real time; - a software that makes the hardware decode the received data and associates them with the correct electric signals that command the stepper motors. The machine can perform 3D objects likes Human faces and complex geometric figures with a maximum precision of 0.005 mm.

 

Ilaria Furlan, Sebastian Gregoricchio, Anastasia Moravskaya

A new protocol for the diagnosis of GastroIntestinal Stromal Tumours (GISTs) and non GISTs (Biology)

With this project we want to underline the importance of molecular biology in the context of tumour diagnosis. Friuli Venezia Giulia, a region belonging to North-East Italy, showed the highest incidence of tumours in recent years, when compared with other Italian regions. Considering this, we developed the idea about a project in tumours. We decided to focus our attention on GastroIntestinal Stromal Tumours (GISTs), the most frequent gastroenteric mesenchymal tumours. These tumours are classified as GISTs or non GISTs through immunohystochemical (IHC) and morphological analysis. Usually these are the only analysis performed in order to give a diagnostic response. GISTs can be treated with two different drugs, Imatinib and Sunitinib, but they are effective just in presence of some specific mutations, for this reason it is important to determine the mutational profile of the tumours. In this study we used the most common molecular biology techniques to analyse the mutational status of 27 samples previously classified in GISTs and non GISTs through traditional IHC analysis. Our results showed that some tumours belonging GISTs category lacked those mutations required for treatment with targeted drugs, while some non GISTs (45%) showed typical mutations of GISTs, known to give sensitiveness to the drug. Lately we also performed some IHC analysis for a new possible marker: LRIG1 protein, but for this aim more studies are required. Lastly, we hypothesized the possibility of employing monoclonal Ab’s, Vitamin H (biotin) and avidin in order to obtain an anti-tumoral treatment which would be less toxic and less invasive than those ones actually in use.

 

 

Latvia (3 projects)

Jāzeps Rutkis, Toms Dreiže

The creation of a MHD generator and the improvement of its efficiency for wave power harvesting in the Baltic Sea (Physics)

Due to the pollution caused by fossil-based energy sources and their diminishing supply the need to switch from fossil-based energy sources to renewable energy sources is becoming more and more important. A perspective and little studied means of alternative power generation is wave power harvesting with a MHD generator. Therefore the goal of our research is to study a MHD generator’s suitability for wave energy harvesting in the Baltic Sea. To reach this goal we created several MHD generator prototypes and compared their parameters (the effective surface of the electrodes, the potential difference and the magnetic flux density) and the factors that influence them, increased the generated potential difference 17 times and determined the wave parameters of the Baltic Sea and adapted the most effective MHD generator model for wave power harvesting. We concluded that it is possible to adapt MHD technology for power generation from a water flow ionized with Na+ and Cl- ions and created a working generator prototype. In the end of our research we worked on a nano MHD generator that used CoFe2O4 thin layers and a metallic substrate.

 

Andis Ozoliņš, Lāsma Purina

A new quantitative method of collecting of tardigrades and its testing with a short-term study of population dynamics in the moss Leucodon sciuroides (Biology)

Tardigrades are small, water-dwelling, segmented animals with eight legs. They are able to survive in high radiation, very hot and cold temperatures and in herbariums for 100 years. They are even able to survive in outer space. Tardigrades are able to survive in extreme environments because they are able to enter cryptobiotic state. If humans want to learn from tardigrades they need to discover mechanisms behind cryptobiosis. It can be done with a good knowledge about tardigrada ecology. And for ecological studies it is necessary to be able to acquire a quantitative number of tardigrades from their population. Standard method for collecting tardigrades doesn’t provide it. And so we developed a new method to collect tardigrades and we tested it with a short-term study about tardigrada population dynamics. This is the first study about tardigrades, their ecology and taxonomy in Latvia and we proved that our original method for collecting tardigrades is better than the standard method.

 

Vitālijs Brejevs, Maksims Sokolovs

Study of cellular automata on orthogonal and hexagonal fields (Computing)

The most widely used method of describing natural processes is using mathematical equations, though recently alternatives to this approach were developed. One of them is a discrete model of cellular automaton – a field of cells that can change their state in time. Most often these fields consist of square cells, as in classical Game of Life, which found applications in physics, chemistry, biology, computer science and even philosophy besides its original purpose for leisure. The research extends the Game of Life to match an even wider range of applications. Several mathematical and computational modelling methods were used to select and analyse the cellular automata which best comply with the Game of Life and thus are very likely to be applied practically.

 

 

Lithuania (3 projects)

Motiejus Valiūnas, Gabija Maršalkaitė     

Survival of star clusters in our Galaxy (Physics)

Despite the fact that we live in our Galaxy, we know little about its structure. The most intriguing objects of the Galaxy are old groups of stars – globular clusters – orbiting around it. Their origin is not well known, so we decided to study dynamical cluster evolution and probability of survival for long periods of time. We used computers with fast graphic cards to model stellar evolution and gravitational interaction of thousands of stars in the clusters orbiting our Galaxy. We simulated how clusters would look like if they were observed in the sky. We have found that our model explains distributions of real globular cluster sizes and shapes well.

 

Miglė Radžvilaitė, Edvinas Černauskas

Magnetic field and cryogenic water for plant growth (Biology)

We live on a beautiful planet rich in water resources and plant life surrounded by natural and human made magnetic fields, which have a considerable influence on all living beings. That is why we wanted to study various cryogenic water fractions and magnetic field effects on the growth of plants. The results of this study show that the plants affected by a magnetic field and cryogenically ameliorated water are much bigger and produce 50 % more biomass. These findings can be applied in practice not only for growing plants and solving the global problems on the Earth but also in near future greenhouses constructed for long space travels.

 

Airidas Žukauskas

Mobile phones and bacteria Bacillus subtilis (Biology)

In recent years mobile phone popularity has increased dramatically and raised a question: can mobile phone radiation affect human organism negatively? There was done a lot of research studies trying to find out about the non-thermal effect of mobile phone radiation but conclusions of one studies opposed with the others. This study was chosen as it was very interesting to find out how truly it is. In this study there were used bacteria Bacillus subtilis as a widely used model organism to see how they react to mobile phone radiation.

 

  

Luxembourg (2 projects)

Amandine Sylviane Natach Meisch, Nora Schroeder, Nora Schmit

Physiological analysis of various stimuli on Paramecium caudatum (Biology)

Our research is focused on the reactions of paramecium caudatum to different stimuli. We started from the hypothesis that the reactions to particular stimuli are related to the calcium and the potassium channels. We conducted several experiments: we verified the thigmotaxis by observing the collision of paramecia with cotton filaments. By creating an electrical field we could follow the movement of paramecium caudatum under various voltages. The chemotaxis was observed by adding different substances to the culture. To find out the temperature preferences of the protozoans a temperature gradient was created. We concluded that most of the reactions resulted from the polarisation and depolarisation of the cell membrane caused by the opening of the potassium and calcium channels. Our experiments also show the advantage of fast reactivity in an inimical environment.

 

Anouk Ewen, Myriam Maitry, Romalea Hadžajlić

The myth of chocolate (Chemistry)

Chocolate is one of the favourite foodstuffs in the world; almost everyone loves it. But not everyone knows the chemical constituents which chocolate is composed of. In our scientific project, "The Myth of Chocolate", we focused on qualitative analysis of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins in dark and milk chocolate by chemical reactions. During these experiments, dark chocolate turned out to be healthier than milk chocolate, which means the higher the percentage of cocoa is, the healthier the chocolate is. Furthermore we wanted to create our own exact instructions for these chemical experiments with chocolate, because mostly they are usually not very detailed and one do not find many either in books or on the internet. Other students could use them for example for their own experiments.

 

  

Malta (1 project)

Lucia Anna Farrugia, Martha Anne Zammit

Anthropogenic contamination of surface water in selected areas of Malta (Environment)

Maltese groundwater is known to be contaminated by leached nitrates. Uncontrolled abstraction contributes to the salinification of the mean sea level aquifer. Surface water recharges groundwater.  Certain ion concentrations are taken to mirror the level of water contamination. Nine sites from five selected temporary streams at Girgenti / Luq, Virtu / Ramel (Wied tal-Isqof), Chadwick Lakes (Wied Qlejgħa), Ġnejna and Baħrija were sampled twice weekly for six weeks starting during a period of heavy rainfall. Water temperature was noted. Flow was estimated at three sites. Nitrate-nitrogen, ammonianitrogen, calcium, chloride and pH were measured using ion selective electrodes. Total phosphate was determined by colorimetry. Rainfall and air temperature records together with published ground water analyses were correlated with the data obtained. Higher densities of animal husbandry and urbanisation were shown to be detrimentally associated with surface water quality.

 

 

New Zealand (1 project)

Nuan-Ting Huang

Eye think (Biology)

The number of short-sighted children has increased over the years, and there has been much research to determine the causes. My project expands on research published in 1964 by Hess and Polt of the University of Chicago, which indicated that pupil size can change in response to mental activity. In particular, they found pupil size increased when the subject was solving multiplication questions. I used a photographic technique to measure the pupil sizes of forty-six girls, aged 11 to 12 years-old, while they solved mathematics equations and read simple sentences at near and far distances. I made further observations about the effect of cognitive and non-cognitive tasks on pupil size by measuring visual acuity. In contrast to Hess and Polt, I found that answering addition questions at near and far distances decreased pupil size, while reading simple sentences increased it. Although I found no direct link between short-sightedness and pupil size, my project has raised questions about the possible influence of stress, a prevalent feeling among students living in competitive environments. Hence, the effect of mental activity on the human eye still remains an area for investigation.

 

 

Norway (1 project)

Elise Marguerite Damstra

How forest degradation affects reptiles in a Madagascan spiny forest (Biology)

I travelled with my school to the spiny forests of southern Madagascar which have many unique plants and animals. Villagers use the forests for wood and for their cattle. An effective management plan that helps the villagers and protects the forest needs a scientific baseline. Reptiles like chameleons, geckos and iguana are sensitive to changes in the forest. I worked with biologists to find out how degradation of the forest affects these lizards. The reptiles in a quarter hectare of 3 differently degraded areas were counted 3 times, finding 282 animals. Intact forest had 15 different species. This number is reduced by almost half in moderately degraded and by two thirds in highly degraded forest. The highly degraded forest is dominated by a common skink that often lives in disturbed areas. A more even distribution of species in intact forest reflects greater biodiversity.

 

 

Poland (3 projects)

Jakub Nagrodzki

Development of molecular patches therapy: trimethylguanosine cap analogues synthesis (Chemistry)

The aim of this research was synthetizing a modified molecule of a chemical compound naturally occurring in living organisms – a trimethylguanosine (TMG) cap analogue. Thanks to complicated interactions with different factors, this compound enables various molecules; to which therapeutics belong, to enter the nucleus of the cell. This is where the scientists’ hopes for new treatments for genetic diseases lay. Using TMG cap analogues, it is already possible to treat i.e. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy – a fatal, sex-linked, genetic disease. The therapy has, however, many imperfections. Modification introduced to the structure of the molecule in this research is believed to help eliminate them. It can thus be described as the announcement of the only and the most promising chance for patients with various genetically inherited diseases.

 

Anna Julia Kuśnierczak

Alternative pollination: influence of different ecosystems on the reproduction of red mason bee (Osmia rufa L.) on the example of a meadow, an orchard, a forest and an arboretum (Biology)

Due to the decreasing number of honeybees, the role of alternative pollinators becomes increasingly important. Red mason bee (Osmia rufa L.) is a solitary bee which was shown to be a successful pollinator. Therefore, the aim of my study was to search for the best environment that provides the most intense reproduction of red mason bee. Four ecosystems: the meadow, the forest, the orchard and the arboretum were tested. A total of 3600 red mason bee cocoons were placed near 48 artificial nests made of reed tubes. Weekly observations were then carried out. The meadow turned out to be the most favourable environment, as the increase of the population size was almost 4 times higher in the next generation. The second favourable location was the orchard. Lower increase of the population size was observed in the forest and surprisingly, the lowest in arboretum.

 

Tymoteusz Wiktor Król

A general description of the Vilamovian female attire with particular focus on mourning and funerary garments (Social Sciences)

The Vilamovian costume belongs to one of the richest and most varied costumes in Poland. It is unique because, similarly to Vilamovian language, it is typical of one small town only. Each Vilamovian woman had a dozen sets of skirts, ymertihla shawls, aprons and headscarves, dedicated to a different time, which she inherited from her mother, mother-in-law or her godmother. The elements of the costume have survived to this day in museums and private collections. The largest of those collections was created by the author of this article, who has also gathered much information about this dress by interviewing the oldest Vilamovians. There is a distinction between dress for deep and less deep mourning, depending on the time elapsed since the death of the person. After the war, it was forbidden to wear the Vilamovian costume. Despite the disappearance of the mourning dress in the past, thanks to many presentations, activities of the Regional Band "Wilamowice" and publications, the dress starts to experience its "renaissance" today.

 

 

Portugal (2 projects)

Armindo Picão Fernandes, Mariana Azevedo dos Santos, Ricardo Picão Fernandes

Flies on the phone (Biology)

The potential adverse effects of radio frequency radiation (RF) emitted by mobile phone use on male reproductive function are widely reported in the literature. However, published information regarding the mechanisms involved in reduced male fertility is scarce and inconsistent. Novel experimental protocols were specially designed to analyse previously untested effects of RF on the reproductive traits of male Drosophila melanogaster. Revealing that exposure to RF is mutagenic and induces homologous recombination in proliferative cells, an event linked to loss of heterozogosity. Furthermore, RF contributed to a 30% decrease in male fertility but did not seem to induce alterations in spermatogenesis or sperm quality. Interestingly, RF exposure reduced the ability of males to attract females during courtship and caused alterations in wing shape. Since male wings are crucial for courtship, producing a sound that together with pheromonal information is believed to be one of the primary modes of information exchange between the sexes, we propose that wing alteration may act as a factor for sexual isolation contributing to the reduced reproductive capacity.

 

Daniel Ricardo Lucas da Silva, Lúcia Filipa Ribeiro Martins, Marlieke Anne Maria Pronk

Impact of invasive flora in riparian ecosystems in Odemira (Environment) 

The goal of this project was to study the influence of the Acacia invasion on the biodiversity of riparian ecosystems in Odemira. We selected as biodiversity indicators two groups of living beings: plants and arthropods. In the Mira River and “Ribeira das Pimentas” we selected sampling points in sections with dominance of acacia and sampling points in sections dominated by autochthonous trees. At each point we made an inventory of the flora (15m2), two barktraps (tree trunk trap) and four pitfalls (ground traps). We noticed that the diversity of plants is significantly higher in riparian ecosystems with native vegetation than in riparian ecosystems dominated by acacias. With the results of the barktraps we came to the same conclusion. The results of the pitfalls did not show significant differences between the two samples, probably due to the lower dependence of the ground animals in relation to the habitat provided by acacia.

 

 

Russia (3 projects)

Alexandra Luganskaya

The project "The fire-fighting robot EXPERT" (Environment)

I propose to develop a mobile fire-fighting robot that is capable to move without assistance and control peat bogs according to schemes and coordinates that are laid down in the computer’s memory of the robot. The robot can reveal the deep seated hotbeds of fire by using a telescopic bur-probe which is capable to analyse the soil, measure the depth of peat on the area and measure the temperature of the layer of peat. Using the connection of lock and bur-probe the fire-fighting robot will permit to deliver the extinguishing means of the standard fire-fighting equipment directly to the hotbed of fire irrespective of the depth of its location. The fire-fighting robot will have on-board foam fire extinguishing which will allow localizing small surface hotbed of fire by itself. A night vision camera will ensure uninterrupted work of fire-fighting robot at any time and allow the operator of controller office to carry out control of the area at the subject of a fire hazard. 

 

Alexey Volkov

Information system of educational institutions j-Journal (Computing)

«Information system of educational institutions j-Journal» is an interactive web-based application, designed to be installed in comprehensive educational establishments. The main aim of this project is to integrate information and technical resources into a single system, making pupils, teachers’ staff and parents its active users. The software product includes electronic journal, reporting system, school timetable, security system, site management, Digital Alert System, internal file-sharing network and some other services. An important aspect in the implementation of the system was to create a comprehensive interface for end users, so the development of the project was carried out according to the wishes of teachers, pupils and parents. j-Journal was created with the help of the following technologies and programming languages: PHP, C + +, SH, Java-script, HTML, XML. Also, Ajax, asynchronous data transfer technology, is used in the project. The implementation of a software product started in February 2010 and took 13 months. At the moment the project is successfully operating in several educational institutions of Moscow region. J-Journal is a commercial product and currently governed by a legal entity. The project is registered as an object of copyright. Official site of the project: www.j-journal.ru. (Supplied by an English version).

   

Kseniia Fedina

The study of rehabilitation in successions of Kandalaksha Natural Reserve and the area in the vicinity of Umba village (Kandalaksha Bay, The White Sea, 2007- 2011) (Biology) 

Currently, human activities destroy many ecosystems. Very often there is no reclamation work done on lands in the area of work. The study focuses on regenerative processes in ecosystems affected by human activities, as well as the restoration of damaged ecosystems. The work started in 2007 and over the period of last 5 years we studied the progress of restoration successions around Umba village, and on the islands in the Kandalaksha State Nature Reserve. The processes of restoration were studied in 14 test areas: abandoned gardens, places of deforestation, sand pits, forest fires, open silver mines on the islands. In 2010, the data on flora species composition of studied objects were systemized, and restoration work was conducted at the quarry. Conclusions: Recovery of vegetation in the areas of former gardens and deforestation sites progresses faster where the habitats are protected from the winds; Overgrowing of mines progresses very slowly due to high wind influence. Vegetation on bare substratum cannot get attached effectively. Mainly it is represented by crustose lichen; Regeneration processes on sites of fires progress slowly. Mosses, lichens, bearberry are present in vegetation cover during the initial stages of succession; Red fescue, sheep fescue, narrow-leaved willow-herb, bent gigantic pine are the pioneer species of recovery successions; Planting of pine seedlings is highly recommended in the high wind areas of quarries as the initial stage of vegetation recovery.

 

 

Slovakia (3 projects) 

Peter Horváth

Synthesis of triazene compounds and their application in spectrophotometric determination of cadmium (Chemistry) 

This research project deals with development of novel method for determination of cadmium. Cadmium is very toxic heavy metal, therefore it is very useful to know its concentration in waste water from industrial facilities or similar places, where is expected presence of this metal. This method is based on the fact, that cadmium makes strongly coloured complexes with some organic compounds, concretely triazenes. Intensity of this colour depends on the concentration of cadmium in a sample. Therefore, if we measure this colour using spectrophotometer, we are able to say, how much cadmium is in the sample. We have prepared and tested 20 triazenes, which were not used for this purpose ever, and chosen the best one. Developed method, which uses this compound, is for the purpose of cadmium determination more sensitive, ecologically friendlier and cheaper than method, which is nowadays used.

 

Tibor Porubän

Sandboxes and soil of Presov district as a source of human larval toxocariasis (Environment)

The aim of our study was to study the soil and sandboxes near the human settlements of Presov district, to determine their contamination with emphasis on endoparasites of species Toxocara sp., investigate the effect of long-term aerobic storage of dog´s excrements with and without addition of dust mixture from lime production in the survival model Ascaris suum eggs and observe the devitalizing effect of ammonium hydroxide, chlorinated lime and Allium sativum on the eggs of Toxocara canis.

 

Rebecca Lilla Hassanová

Biotechnological preparation of 2-phenylethanol by immobilized yeasts (Biology)

Natural 2-phenylethanol is a high value aroma chemical and can be produced from l-phenylalanine via Ehrlich pathway by yeasts. Due to serious product inhibition, the space–time yield is usually low. A continuous approach using macroporous resin as in situ adsorbent made it possible that the quantity and viability of the cells were improved simultaneously. With the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae the highest space–time yield of 0.90 g/l/h reported so far was obtained.

 

 

Slovenia (2 projects)

Tim Prezelj

A novel tyrosinase - TLR4 protein as a potential vaccine for melanoma (Biology)

Our immune system plays the key role in protecting our body against intrusion of foreign bodies. We divide it on the natural and acquired immune response and both of them work together. The Toll-like receptors play an important part in identifying specific molecules characteristic for microorganisms and thereafter activate the acquired-immunity cells. The immune system is also important at detecting and removing cancer cells. Cancer today represents a major health threat owing to the ever increasing number of people affected by it. One of the frequent kinds is cutaneous melanoma, for which there is still no effective method of treatment and the numbers of patients are increasing. It is therefore important to develop vaccine which could prevent cancer. Effective vaccine in addition to antigen (molecules, against which we wish to promote an immune response) needs an adjuvant (molecules that activate immune system cells, for example, ligands of Toll-like receptor). In our research project we have therefore set ourselves a goal to produce chimeric receptor which would be composed partly of an constitutively active form of Toll-like receptor (adjuvans role) and partly of tyrosinase (the role of tumour antigen). Such chimeric receptor could serve as a (potential) vaccine against malignant melanoma. The preparation of the chimeric receptor was successful by using the methods of molecular biology, DNA was prepared with a record for chimeric receptor and the DNA sequence was verified by sequencing. We confirmed the expression of the protein by confocal microscopy. With the research work we have demonstrated a new approach to the design of anti-tumour vaccines. By replacing the tyrosinase with any tumour antigen the use could be extended to other types of cancers.

 

Nejc Bombek, Rok Nemec

Wireless safety traffic device (Engineering)

On 27 November 2010 news of a chain reaction crash on the Dolenjska highway shocked Slovenia. Due to the thick fog and over-speeding a total of 38 cars and 51 people were involved in the accident in which 3 people lost their lives. This accident was the initiative for our research. We will introduce a device that can warn drivers of impending dangers or hazards on the road according to the level of danger (from the least to the most dangerous situation). We designed a gadget similar to a traffic light with a sound warning and LED warning light: yellow, orange and red. We have compared our device to the existing ones and found out that despite some disadvantages our device has its advantages. In conclusion, we believe that the development of such a device is sensible. A prototype of our device is in the making. However, there are still many challenges ahead of us before the final product is completed.

 

 

South Korea (2 projects)

Jae Won Cho

Flexible thermoelectric device using a screen printing technique (Engineering) 

With the use of the technology of screen printing, an energy harvesting device, a flexible thermoelectric device module was demonstrated. In this research, experiments using the thermoelectric materials ZnSb (p-type) and Bi2Te3 (n-type) were conducted to test its basic thermoelectric properties using the screen printing technique. The effect of various annealing process condition was investigated, too. The thermoelectric thin films fabricated by the low-cost and speedy screen printing technique have shown that its power factor is comparable to the presently commercialized bulk type materials. In addition, unlike the bulk types, this film has shown possibilities flexibility due to the porosity and thinness of the screen printed film. The flexible thermoelectric device module using a screen printing technique was fabricated in a vertical structure. When the ∆T=27.7 K, this device could produce an electric power of 2.8 x 10-4 W/cm2 which is high enough to operate small mobile electric circuits. It was also found that this device could be bent to the minimum bending radius of 2 cm.

 

Jung Yub Oh, Soon Woo Kwon

Research of natural air pollution indicator (Environment)

Using Ube (purple yam) which contains great quantity of Anthocyanin, identify the change of Anthocyanin when it’s exposed to NOx and SOx, than make air pollution indicator which is mobile, economical and eco-friendly unlike existing indicator which is expensive hard to carry. As a conclusion, change of colour made by not only SOx but also NOx allowed researchers to notice that Ube Anthocyanin indicator can be used to indicate the air pollution, and the indicator researchers made is inexpensive and portable because it is only liquid. Researchers expect that this indicator can be used world widely and future using this indicator is bright.

 

 

Spain (2 projects)

María Martínez Hita

History of a bubble: analysis of the factors that have led to the creation of the property bubble in Spain (Social Sciences)

This research analyses the factors that have led to the creation of the housing bubble that took place in Spain between 1998 and 2008 and have caused an overvaluation of housing, coming to triple its price (716'30 euros/m2 step early in 1998 to 2101 '40 euros/m2 in 2008). These factors include population growth, low interest rates, credit facilities, increased purchasing power and soil liberalization among others. In addition, I analyse psychological factors, namely, expectations of appreciation of the home’s value. The conclusions highlight the significant role played by the "irrational behaviour" of buyers and investors and their overoptimistic "expectations" about the continued appreciation of housing values in the formation of the Spanish housing bubble.

 

Eva Martin del Pico

Control of enzymatic browning. The most effective and innocuous inhibitory method of melanogenesys among food industry favorites (Chemistry)

Enzymatic browning involves the colour alteration of food, especially fruit and vegetables, due to an accumulation of melanin. After suffering mechanical procedures, tissues get damaged, tear and cells content come in contact with air, enzymes and substrates required for melanogenesys reactions interact, which finally affects products nutritional value, taste and smell as a result of melanin free radicals with other species. In this research scalding at different temperatures as well as the presence of citric acid, ascorbic acid and sodium bisulfite at different concentrations effect on mushroom Ty activity was studied. These are the most used inhibitory methods by food industry. The main aim was to determine which of them is more efficient and respectful with nutritional value and organoleptic properties. The most effective inhibitor is sodium bisulfite, in presence of which Ty barely shows catalytic activity, but it can be a health hazard. Heat treatment is efficient from 100º C, an excessively high temperature for non-processed and “natural” foods, very demanded by the public. The presence of citric acid 0,025% and ascorbic 0.5% lead to an almost total Ty inactivation. Thus, they are the most effective enzymatic browning inhibitory treatments and adequate for their use in food.

 

 

Sweden (2 projects)

Nils Martin Albert Anlind, Delawar Allan Said, Linn Elisabeth Larsson

Drivers, DJ7l5 och DJ695, the effect of amyloid peptides (Medicine)

The aim of this project has been to study the suitability of two newly discovered Drosophila drivers (gene regulator), called DJ715 and DJ695. The study has been performed by comparing these new drivers to the well-known ELAV-GAL4. By testing the flies activity-, survival- and memory we have mapped out the suitability of both of these drivers for further research.

 

Nils Wilhelm Ygge

Project Millenium Falcon (Engineering)

The question of this project was to solely see if a student with a budget likened to the budget of NASA could take as astonishing photos as the ones that have made people pensive to see our world from above. With a balloon bought from eBay, a Styrofoam box found in a storeroom, an old castoff camera and a tube of hydrogen I wanted to make this possible. Due to a lot of regulations created by the Swedish Air Control this took a time to prepare but once it was prepared I was able to finally send up my balloon which reached an altitude of 30 147 meters above the sea level.

 

 

Switzerland (3 projects)

Marc Oliver Kirsch

Development, construction, and use of an autonomous drone for measuring the concentration of gases in the air (Engineering)

The objective in the project ap01 was to create a cost-effective measuring system focusing on the concentration of methane in the atmosphere, a system which may also close the current gap between stationary measuring balloons and manned flights for the same purpose. The system is extremely flexible and can achieve high temporal and spatial resolution measurements of methane concentration. At its heart it`s a lightweight model aircraft made of expanded polymer. In its present form the drone is equipped with meteorological sensors to measure temperature, humidity, barometric pressure and methane. An autopilot system enables it to be used largely autonomously. The aircraft, with a wing-span of 120 cm and an overall weight of 500g, can also be easily put to use in remote areas with limited infrastructure. For saving costs and development time the whole system is based on open source hardware.

 

Nevzet Khasanov

Diffusion cloud chamber: the visible radioactivity (Physics)

The present work describes the assembly as well as the experiments conducted by means of air-cooled cloud chamber with peltier elements. The main goal is to visualize the invisible radioactivity as well as to demonstrate this phenomenon to general public. The experimental part includes such experiments as observation of the natural radioactivity (α, β, μ, no source), analysis of the types of charged particles, observation of collisions of charged particles (changing the orbit; "secondary ionization" - δ-electrons), observation of the radioactive decay of different sources (U238, Rn220, Am 241, Sr90), deflection of the β -particles in the magnetic field and determination of their charge, calculation of their speed and energy, calculation of the half-life time of Rn220 (Calculated: t1/2 = 58 sec.; literature: t1/2 Literature value = 58 sec.), observation and the analysis of the “Compton scattering” and observation of the cosmic rays in the higher altitudes (Swiss alps).

 

Fabrice Adelio Amédée Roncoroni, Tiziano Schürch

Study of a metal micro-deposition process on natural microporous structures using chemical deposition from supercritical phases (Chemistry)

Sea sponge, volcanic stone and the mineral matrix of cancellous osseous tissues are micro/macro porous structures characterized by a large surface/volume ratio. By coating these structures with metallic layers they can become systems of great interest to industrial processes as, for example, catalysts for heterogeneous catalysis. Analysing the structural and chemical/physical characteristics of these structures we developed a new innovative method to homogeneously and thoroughly deposit on them thin metallic layers. This method exploits the diffusional and solvent properties of supercritical CO2, which allows its metallic precursor to melt, diffuse and deposit itself on the structures in a capillary way. In a second phase, the coated pieces are put into contact with H2 at 1200°C; the precursor coating turns in the metallic state. The low quantity of metal required coating the surface, the structures’ natural origin and regenerability guarantee economic and environmental benefits.

 

 

Turkey (3 projects)

Kamil Veli Toraman, Mustafa Berk Yaldız

Developing an algorithm as to determining the closed area that traverses all the points with the shortest clustered circumference (Computing)

Being able to traverse all the points in a cluster of points, finding the shortest route, detection of simple closed paths are the issues that maintain their importance in the field of algorithm. ‘’Travelling Salesman Problem’’, regarding this issue, maintains its popularity. One of the methods that could solve the problem by taking the intersections into account is considering all situations. For instance, this method takes 131 681 894 400 seconds for 20 points. This means that solution of this problem requires a period of 4175.6 years. Our goal is developing an algorithm as to determining the closed area that traverses all the points with the shortest clustered circumference in short time period and using it in daily life. We first made a search as to which method to use for the solution of our problem. As a result of our research we found out that “geometric slope formulas”’, “geometric intersection formulas”, genetic algorithm and K-Means algorithm could serve us.

 

Mine Uçan, Miray Akbaş

Somebody is watching us (evaluation of the security cameras in schools in the context of surveillance society) (Social Sciences)

The objective of our study is to deal with and analyse the impact of the security cameras on students in schools in the context of surveillance society. The cameras which have become a part of our daily lives are able to observe and record each behaviour of the individuals in the society. When it comes to security, people see cameras as normal and even necessary. However, security is not the only function of surveillance. In addition, superintendence and controlling functions become more significant more than security. Surveillance should be considered in the context of social superintendence and power relations. The power has made surveillance in all episodes of the history in order to create the social order. The societies today are also called as surveillance societies. Our basic hypothesis is that the security cameras in the schools are affecting the students negatively. We also aim to show that the effects of the cameras change according to the school type, sex, class, age and socio-economic situations. The population of the study is the students who are studying in state and private schools in the city center of Malatya. This is a total of 24 216 students in these high schools. Within this population, 509 students have been chosen by taking into consideration the high school types and a 22-question-survey has been implemented on them. In addition to the survey, in the sample, an interview consisting of 13 questions was carried out with 20 students who are each from different schools. In addition, school administrators and guidance counsellors in schools were interviewed with. The results obtained from the interviews were used in the part of the interpretation of the tables. The implemented questionnaires were made into table with SPSS programme and analysed. For the analyses, frequency distributions and cross-tabs were utilized. As a result, the cameras have negative effect on physical, social and psychological development of the students. It creates behaviour change in the students via oppression. This situation hinders the adolescent students' growing up as healthy individuals. At this point, the thing that should be done is to develop internal auditing instead of cameras which are external auditing devices and to help their personal development instead of not oppressing some of their behaviour which is typical of their age.

 

Adem Noktacı, Sevcan Altundal

Determining the thickness of transparent thin layers in digital media by means of double slit method (Physics)

The objective of this study is to measure the thickness of the thin film using a designed and manufactured automation system, based on the Young double slit experiment. Thin films change the optical, mechanical, and electrical qualities of materials when they coated on them in nano or micro dimensions. For example, heat insulation, solar panels, glasses, cameras, lenses, etc. Thin films are widely used in technological fields. The thickness of thin films is the factor in determining the usage of materials coated with thin films. The question, in that sense, was how to measure the thickness of that thin film in a sensitive and practical manner as it is possible to specify it in various methods and this study aims to measure the thickness of transparent thin films and layers by means of Young double slit method. The results achieved in the experiment turned out to be in compliance with the thin layer found out theoretically. The sensitivity level is exacting up to 98%, which is a highly satisfactory result.

 

 

Ukraine (2 projects)

Oleksandr Guryanov

Digital signature systems on elliptic curves in the Edwards form (Mathematics)

Nowadays with development of the digital communication systems the problem of security of information transmissions is becoming all the more vital. Digital signature systems based on elliptic curves are one of the most effective ways to provide the authenticity of a digital message or document. In 2007 an excellent alternative to traditional elliptic curves was proposed – curves in the Edwards form. Their main advantages are the highest speed of computations and simplicity in programming due to the unique properties, which distinguish these curves. However, actual Edwards curves which are applicable to cryptography have not yet been found and no practical systems are based on them. This project is devoted to a search for Edwards curves applicable to cryptography, those which meet special requirements of security. As the result of the project, three curves were found, which are recommendable for usage in cryptographic systems today and in the future.

 

Roman Vydro

Research of electromagnetic interaction in some systems (Physics)

The goal of this research project was to create a demonstrative complex, consisting of several simple and visual models that can be used for study and research purposes. Based on three already existing systems – toy-device «Levitron» (consists of a levitating spinning top over the magnetic base), electromagnetic mass accelerator – the Gauss gun and a system of magnetic floats on water surface we created demonstrative analogs of these systems. We considered and corrected the flaws of the existing systems, which were limiting their demonstrative and study potential. Based on developed systems theoretical and experimental research of basic dependencies took place. The created demonstrative analogs illustrate in a visual way several aspects of magnetic interaction, such as, magnetic levitation, stable equilibrium given magnetic interaction and ferromagnetic materials’ behaviour in a magnetic field. The results obtained while studying the «Levitron» device analog can be used in the production of magnetic bearings. Created systems can be comprehensively used while studying magnetic interaction in Physics.

 

 

United Kingdom (3 projects)

Thomas Glenn Myers

Gravitational lensing (Physics)

The projects was concerned with searching for cosmic arcs caused by the bending of reality itself by objects vaster than the human mind can comfortably conceive. Specifically, light from one galaxy bent around another by the gravity of the latter, which looks like a blue arc encircling a red galaxy, and is called a gravitational lensing system. Using a computer, ten million galactic images were brought down to ten thousand candidates, which I then looked through by hand to find nine original systems. These add to the hundred or so already known to our species, and can help us test one of our best theories of reality, while also unravelling current mysteries like dark matter.

 

Maia Rowe-Sampson

Mice and worms: the new supermodels? (Biology) 

How can animals be used in research to find cures for genetic disorders? Which animals will produce the best results in which specific experiments? I looked at Caenorhabditis elegans and mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), comparing them in two distinct experimental settings to investigate which was the best model system to achieve consistent, biologically relevant results. I investigated specific gene function in each organism by either removing or inhibiting them using gene knockout techniques and conducted experiments to see how efficiently genes had been removed. Antibody staining and quantitative gene expression analysis showed that in these particular experiments, genes had been removed more consistently in the mouse ESC system than in C. elegans. My research is important as it may help scientists select the most appropriate model system for their research allowing them to get the most accurate, meaningful results. This may enable scientists to develop therapies for genetic disorders and may enable advances in development of synthetic organs.

  

Helen Mary Sheehan

Processing and characterisation of SHS 7574 Nanosteel by Selective Laser Melting (Materials) 

This project involved the building of samples of SHS 7574 Nanosteel by the additive fabrication process of Selective Laser Melting. These samples were then tested using various techniques, and their microstructures investigated in order to discover more about the phases of the steel.

  

 

USA (3 projects) 

Raghav Tripathi

Towards the cure: abnormal protein interactions between amyloid beta and tau as a therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease (Biology)

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the only cause of death among the top ten globally that can currently not be pathologically prevented, cured, or significantly slowed. In fact, since 2000, death rates for all the other leading causes of death (top twenty) have decreased, while deaths from AD have risen by over 66%. I proposed a novel mechanism suggesting that interactions between Aβ and hyperphosphorylated tau in neurons are the underlying root of AD progression. First, I empirically determined if Aβ synergistically interacts with hyperphosphorylated tau to form Aβ-tau complexes that cause neuronal damage, aggravate synaptic loss, and exacerbate AD as a whole. After a variety of methods supported the hypothesis, I used molecular dynamics simulations to model the interaction between Aβ and tau, and I found that tau isoform R2 had the highest propensity to create Aβ-tau complexes that lead to neuronal death and AD. Thus, I designed therapeutic molecules to hinder the Aβ-tau interaction. Although each of the five molecules operates under different mechanisms, each has the potential to be mass-produced in a cost-efficient manner and utilized in a clinical setting to significantly mitigate AD for future therapeutics.

  

Assiya Kussaiynova

Design and creation of small wind-powered engines for low-wind speeds based on Magnus effect (Engineering) 

Design, construction and experimental testing of a new type of wind turbine (with unusual, conetype elements) based on the Magnus effect which works at low wind conditions of nearly 3-5 m/s. If this multi-bladed wind turbine is created, we will be able to use the low wind energy prevailing in most territories of Kazakhstan. Calculations for designing a pilot sample of cylinders of variable cross- section and study of their aerodynamics; Setting up pilot three-bladed wind turbine; Laboratory experiment in the aerodynamic wind tunnel T-1-M using aerodynamic balance. Novelty in the research is that the rotor element is designed by us as rotating cylindrical elements of variable cross-section (i.e. in the cone-type form). The difference is that unlike existing usual helical wind turbines, blades of which reflect the airflow at small angles, cylindrical elements of our wind turbine captures the flow of wind due to rotation of the very cylinders. This leads to higher efficiency at low winds. Unlike the existing methods, this approach is based on the active capture of airflow by rotating cylindrical elements. The section variability provides an optimal aerodynamic resistance and reasonably high traction for rotating elements, which can be used to create multi-bladed wind turbines of a new generation based on the Magnus effect. According to our calculations the suggested wind turbine will pay off its cost approximately in 3 years depending on the capacity of the wind turbine.

 

Naomi Chetan Shah

An experimental study of the impact of target volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions on lung health plus a novel risk assessment model to predict their effect on the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR); and the development of a new VOC adsorption filter (Environment) 

This three-phase study shows promise as a next generation cost-effective and sustainable solution for targeted remediation and IAP filtration to improve environmental safety, mitigate lung disorders, reduce mortality and health-care costs. After experimentation in the field and laboratory (Phase 1), a novel PEFR mathematical model (Phase 2) and a new filter to adsorb indoor VOCs were developed (Phase 3). The PEFR model utilizes over 4 million air quality readings from indoor environments and 112 air samples from test chambers to quantify the impact of each target VOC on the PEFR. Twenty eight test chambers, containing common building materials, were independently constructed and maintained in a controlled environment. The model uniquely quantifies the effect of the most harmful VOCs identified using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, including Methylene Chloride, 1,2-Dichloroethane, Xylene, Styrene, and Ethyl Benzene, on PEFR. The results are statistically significant. This project’s original approach enables medical practitioners to utilize the PEFR model to attribute any degradation in lung health to pathophysiological and environmental factors. After deploying the novel VOC biofilter, which incorporated pollutant-degrading microorganisms, the TVOC, Styrene, Toluene, and Xylene, levels declined by about 44%, 19%, 29% and 33% respectively. 

 

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